We Organise Four Seasons Private and Group Tours to Kusadasi, holy Ephesus and other Sightseeings, Custom tour packages to Istanbul, Cappadocia, Antioch, Sardes, Antalya
Biblical - Culturel Tours and Blue Voyage Gulet Cruises in Turkey

  Holy Lands Turkey: CAPPADOCIA

Cappadocia: The geological formation of the Cappadoce region, a volcanic area, started some ten million years ago. The Erciyes, Hasan and volcanoes erupted from the Miocene to the Pliocene period (two million years BC). The lava and stones that were ejected form today's Cappadoce soil : basalt lava on the volcano slopes, dust and ashes around the volcano, forming a 100-150 metre deep layer, made of tuff, clay, sandstone, marl and agglomerate. The alternation of periods of calm between two eruptions and the emergence of smaller volcanoes over thousands of years generated superposed layers made of more or less compact dust. The surface waters formed the Melendiz and Kızılırmak rivers. The wind, the frost and the sun eroded the soft layer of soil and formed small valleys. Some layers were softer than others and thus, water penetrated deeper in the soil, leaving a harder layer on the surface. Little by little, pieces of hard rocks were separated from the plateau. The layers which were below the natural “hats” were protected and evolved at a slower pace. The shape of the earth pillars varies according to the geological nature of the “hat” and the base which has to face erosion. As the years go by, the “hat” can crumble or the base can get thinner and thinner, due to erosion by rain, and the “hat” falls down. Then the earth pillar is bound to disintegrate quickly. That is why the Cappadoce landscape is constantly evolving. Other remarkable elements can be found in Cappadoce : on the sides of the valleys formed by waters, small bumps and holes can be seen. The first signs of human presence date from the neolithic and the calcolithic periods. Indeed, hearths, statuettes and lithic tools made of volcanic glass or bone have been found. Signs of human life have been discovered, dating from the bronze age and the Hittite period (3000-1750 BC). The soil contained gold, silver, copper but no tin. Exchange developed, with Assyrians from Mesopotamia who founded trading posts in the region. It has been established that writing existed in Cappadoce, thanks to Assyrian tablets on which you can read the different taxes paid by the traders to the Anatolian landowners, as well as the interests they received from their debtors. A new artistic trend appeared in Anatolia, as a result of cultural and religious influences from Mesopotamia. In around 2000 BC, a people coming from Europe and passing through Caucasus settled in Anatolia. They integrated into native life. Their language was Indo-European and they were influenced by the native cultural and religious rituals. Their writing, in the shape of hieroglyphics can be found on numerous statuettes. They progressively built an empire , Hattusas (today's Bogazköy). After 600 years of reign, they were defeated by the Phrygians and their empire was dismantled. Some Hittite strongholds remain in central and south-east Anatolia. Other peoples took over the region ; the Kimmers, then the Medes and the Persians who named the region “Kapatuka”, which means “Country of thoroughbred horses”. Since they worshipped Fire, the volcanoes were sacred. Alexander the Great, a Macedonian king, defeated the Persian armies in 334 and 332 BC and dismantled the Persian empire. Then the Romans invaded the region and it became part of the Roman empire. As it was one of the most extreme limits of the empire, they built fortifications around Kayseri and brought in their regions. Christianity, coming from Palestine, spread in the south of Anatolia, then in Cappadoce. The first Christians emigrated to the cities and villages. They started digging the first churches and settled in the dwellings made in the rocks. After the partition of the Roman empire into two parts, Cappadoce, influenced by Byzantium, was often a battlefield between Sassanides and Byzantines. Under the ruling of Leon III, the idolatry of icons was banned. In Cappadoce, this rule lasted 100 years, but it was hardly respected because the people who worshipped icons found refuge in the monasteries of Cappadoce. In the 11th century, the Turkish Seljoukides, led by their chief Alparslan, invaded Anatolia and defeated Romanos Diogenes, the Byzantine emperor. Konya became the capital of the Seljoukide State in Anatolia. 

Fairy Chimneys (Turkish Bizarre Lands)

 Known at least 300 plus underground sacred Churches in Cappadocia

10 Millions years old Volcanic Lands




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